Standard jyotish treatises do not differ much on the issue of relationship among planets. Father of Indian astrology Parashara enunciated following four types of sambandha.
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Exchange or Parivartana
Whereas Mantraswara provides five types of planetary relationships between two planets (vide Phaladeepika chapter 15, verse 30).
1) Exchange or Reception
3) Mutual Aspect
4) Mutual Angle
5) Mutual Trine
On the other hand, Kalidasa and Venkateswara suggest just three types of graha sambandha.
3) Mutual Aspect
But I would prefer the Parashar’s scheme. Let’s understand his four categories of graha sambandha.
1) Kshetra Sambandha
This planetary relation brings forth when two planets mutually occupy each other’s sign. Almost all sources have ranked this sambandha most effective and most powerful (60 virupa or 100%). Kshetra sambandha (also called parivartana) is somewhat a rare planetary relationship and does neither depend upon longitudinal distance nor closeness. Planets involve in kshetra sambandha exchange their full effects which surely accrue in their mutual dasha/antar. In western astrology, this cosmic connection is known as ‘reception’.
Examples: Moon is into Pisces and Jupiter into Cancer; Sun is into Virgo and Mercury is into Leo; Mars into Libra and Venus into Aries etc.
2) Drisht Sambandha
Mutual aspect between two planets results in drisht sambandha. By drishti means full graha drishti here, and not the rasi drishti (sign aspect). Drisht sambandha leads to partial shift (some assumes 75%, some takes 50%) of influence. Besides, some astrologers do not consider the deeptamsa or longitudinal orb (i.e. range of concentration) while evaluating aspect, however, Parashar’s Spusht Drishti methodology (vide BPHS chapter 28) supports to consider orb. This relationship is not possible between, Sun, Mercury and Venus.
Examples: Jupiter is into Libra and Moon is into Aries; Mars is into Gemini and Saturn is into Virgo; Venus is into Pisces and Saturn is into Virgo etc.
3) Yuti Sambandha
Yuti Sambandha is a conjunction of two planets in a rashi. This is a common planetary relation, and Parashar ranked it after paraspara drishti (mutual aspect).
Apart from it, in western astrology conjunction is also possible when two planets are at extreme degrees of different signs, e.g., Mercury is at 29 degree of Aquarius and Venus at 2 degree of Pisces. But in Indian astrology yuti is only possible when both the planets fall in one sign. However difference of opinion exist whether orb should consider or not.
Examples: Venus and Moon are closely placed in Capricorn; Sun and Mercury is sitting together in Leo; Mars and Jupiter are conjoined in Cancer etc.
4) Adhishisht Sambandha
This is a relationship based on unidirectional aspect, i.e. planet A should aspect planet B, but planet B should not aspect A. This is not a usual relationship since it is only possible when one of the planets is Mars, Jupiter or Saturn, as they have additional aspect beside commonly known 7th-house (180 degree) aspect. However, consensus does not exist among commentators whether dispositorship should be taken or not. A common view is that when dispositor of any planet aspects the occupant but occupant doesn’t aspect its dispositor. Sometimes it is called drishta kshetra sambandha
Examples: Sun is in Aries and Mars in Virgo. Here if Sun occupies in Aries then Mars automatically becomes the dispositor of Sun. Now Mars is into Virgo then it obviously casts its full aspect over Sun. On the other hand, Sun is unable to aspect Mars. Similarly Moon in Pisces and Jupiter in Scorpio; or Mercury in Aquarius and Saturn in Taurus causes Adhishisht Sambandha.
*) Mutual Kendra and Mutual Trikona
It is not only Mantreswara who propounds the planets in mutual Kendra and mutual trikona lead to sambandha. Parashara ranked planets, placed in kendra with respect to each others, as a mutual karaka (vide, BPHS, chapter 34, verses 25-30) if they are in their signs of exaltation, own or friend. Similarly readers may find the utmost significance of mutual trine in Nadi literature based on karakattwas. Horoscopes explained in Bhrigu Nandi Nadi, chiefly weigh mutual trine and planets in them reckoned from a certain karaka. In fact, natural benefic in trine to a karaka causes bhagya yoga concerning signification of that karaka. On the other hand, nadi works also regarded dwirdwadasa (mutual 2nd-12th relation) as a supportive sambandha if formed by friendly benefic planets. But shadashtaka (mutual 6th-8th relation) is unanimously considered an evil signature between a karaka and concerned bhavesha especially when a natural malefic simultaneously aspect either significator or pertained house lord.
Here Saturn is in Cancer (a sign ruled by Moon) and Moon is in Capricorn (a sign owned by Saturn). This exchange of sign lords lead to kshetra sambandha between Saturn and Moon. Similarly, Mars in Leo and Sun in Scorpio also forms parivartana and thus hold kshetra sambandha. A very sambandha also constitutes between Venus and Jupiter since they in each other’s sign.
Jupiter and Mercury are opposite to each other and forming drisht sambandh. Mutual aspect between Sun and Jupiter also exist but it not as power as between Jupiter and Mercury on account of orb. Similarly Saturn and Moon are also fully aspecting each other making drisht sambandha (apart from keshtra sambandha).
Sun and Mercury situated in Scorpio results in yuti sambandha. Association of Rahu and Venus also forms yuti in Sagittarius.
Adhishisht sambandha exists between Sun (who is in Scorpio) and Mars (who is in Leo). Mars, being dispositor of Sun, is aspecting Sun but in turns Sun is does not aspecting Mars. If dispositorship is not considered here then also there lies adhishisht sambandha between Moon and Jupiter, as Moon is getting aspect of Jupiter but not transferring its full glance to Jupiter.