Sunday, July 12, 2009

Sambandha: Celestial Connection

In all nativities planets at certain longitudinal distance and placement from each constitute various kinds of relationship which is known as sambandha. It is a fundamental concept in jyotish, especially useful in assessing the transfer of influence between two grahas, involved in certain yoga or functioning as dasnatha and bhuktinatha.

Standard jyotish treatises do not differ much on the issue of relationship among planets. Father of Indian astrology Parashara enunciated following four types of sambandha.

Sambandha Name



Kshetra Sambandha

Exchange or Parivartana


Drisht Sambandha

Mutual Aspect


Yuti Sambandha



Adhishisht Sambandha

Unidirectional Aspect

Whereas Mantraswara provides five types of planetary relationships between two planets (vide Phaladeepika chapter 15, verse 30).

1) Exchange or Reception

2) Conjunction

3) Mutual Aspect

4) Mutual Angle

5) Mutual Trine

On the other hand, Kalidasa and Venkateswara suggest just three types of graha sambandha.

1) Exchange

2) Conjunction

3) Mutual Aspect

But I would prefer the Parashar’s scheme. Let’s understand his four categories of graha sambandha.

1) Kshetra Sambandha

This planetary relation brings forth when two planets mutually occupy each other’s sign. Almost all sources have ranked this sambandha most effective and most powerful (60 virupa or 100%). Kshetra sambandha (also called parivartana) is somewhat a rare planetary relationship and does neither depend upon longitudinal distance nor closeness. Planets involve in kshetra sambandha exchange their full effects which surely accrue in their mutual dasha/antar. In western astrology, this cosmic connection is known as ‘reception’.

Examples: Moon is into Pisces and Jupiter into Cancer; Sun is into Virgo and Mercury is into Leo; Mars into Libra and Venus into Aries etc.

2) Drisht Sambandha

Mutual aspect between two planets results in drisht sambandha. By drishti means full graha drishti here, and not the rasi drishti (sign aspect). Drisht sambandha leads to partial shift (some assumes 75%, some takes 50%) of influence. Besides, some astrologers do not consider the deeptamsa or longitudinal orb (i.e. range of concentration) while evaluating aspect, however, Parashar’s Spusht Drishti methodology (vide BPHS chapter 28) supports to consider orb. This relationship is not possible between, Sun, Mercury and Venus.

Examples: Jupiter is into Libra and Moon is into Aries; Mars is into Gemini and Saturn is into Virgo; Venus is into Pisces and Saturn is into Virgo etc.

3) Yuti Sambandha

Yuti Sambandha is a conjunction of two planets in a rashi. This is a common planetary relation, and Parashar ranked it after paraspara drishti (mutual aspect).

Apart from it, in western astrology conjunction is also possible when two planets are at extreme degrees of different signs, e.g., Mercury is at 29 degree of Aquarius and Venus at 2 degree of Pisces. But in Indian astrology yuti is only possible when both the planets fall in one sign. However difference of opinion exist whether orb should consider or not.

Examples: Venus and Moon are closely placed in Capricorn; Sun and Mercury is sitting together in Leo; Mars and Jupiter are conjoined in Cancer etc.

4) Adhishisht Sambandha

This is a relationship based on unidirectional aspect, i.e. planet A should aspect planet B, but planet B should not aspect A. This is not a usual relationship since it is only possible when one of the planets is Mars, Jupiter or Saturn, as they have additional aspect beside commonly known 7th-house (180 degree) aspect. However, consensus does not exist among commentators whether dispositorship should be taken or not. A common view is that when dispositor of any planet aspects the occupant but occupant doesn’t aspect its dispositor. Sometimes it is called drishta kshetra sambandha

Examples: Sun is in Aries and Mars in Virgo. Here if Sun occupies in Aries then Mars automatically becomes the dispositor of Sun. Now Mars is into Virgo then it obviously casts its full aspect over Sun. On the other hand, Sun is unable to aspect Mars. Similarly Moon in Pisces and Jupiter in Scorpio; or Mercury in Aquarius and Saturn in Taurus causes Adhishisht Sambandha.

*) Mutual Kendra and Mutual Trikona

It is not only Mantreswara who propounds the planets in mutual Kendra and mutual trikona lead to sambandha. Parashara ranked planets, placed in kendra with respect to each others, as a mutual karaka (vide, BPHS, chapter 34, verses 25-30) if they are in their signs of exaltation, own or friend. Similarly readers may find the utmost significance of mutual trine in Nadi literature based on karakattwas. Horoscopes explained in Bhrigu Nandi Nadi, chiefly weigh mutual trine and planets in them reckoned from a certain karaka. In fact, natural benefic in trine to a karaka causes bhagya yoga concerning signification of that karaka. On the other hand, nadi works also regarded dwirdwadasa (mutual 2nd-12th relation) as a supportive sambandha if formed by friendly benefic planets. But shadashtaka (mutual 6th-8th relation) is unanimously considered an evil signature between a karaka and concerned bhavesha especially when a natural malefic simultaneously aspect either significator or pertained house lord.


Here Saturn is in Cancer (a sign ruled by Moon) and Moon is in Capricorn (a sign owned by Saturn). This exchange of sign lords lead to kshetra sambandha between Saturn and Moon. Similarly, Mars in Leo and Sun in Scorpio also forms parivartana and thus hold kshetra sambandha. A very sambandha also constitutes between Venus and Jupiter since they in each other’s sign.

Jupiter and Mercury are opposite to each other and forming drisht sambandh. Mutual aspect between Sun and Jupiter also exist but it not as power as between Jupiter and Mercury on account of orb. Similarly Saturn and Moon are also fully aspecting each other making drisht sambandha (apart from keshtra sambandha).

Sun and Mercury situated in Scorpio results in yuti sambandha. Association of Rahu and Venus also forms yuti in Sagittarius.

Adhishisht sambandha exists between Sun (who is in Scorpio) and Mars (who is in Leo). Mars, being dispositor of Sun, is aspecting Sun but in turns Sun is does not aspecting Mars. If dispositorship is not considered here then also there lies adhishisht sambandha between Moon and Jupiter, as Moon is getting aspect of Jupiter but not transferring its full glance to Jupiter.


  1. Dear Imran,

    In case of a parivartana, should it be read as if the planet has changed signs? For example, if Mercury is in Tauras and Venus in Gemini, for a Vrishchik lagna native, then during Mercury dasa should we interpret the results as that pertaining to venus (7th lord) in 8th?


  2. Hi Rajarshi
    According my stusy and expereince the it woulb be like 7th lord in 7th house and 8th lord in 8th house but in antra dasa of venus there will be disturbance in matrimonial aspect and business

  3. Sorry for late reply Rajarshi.

    In parivartana (sign exchange), planets yield results of each other. And this is endorsed by almost all ancient and modern jyotish authorities.

    Coming to your case. For Scorpio Lagna, Mercury in Taurus and Venus in Gemini means exchange between 7th and 8th lords, which is indeed not auspicious, especially during Mercury-Venus and Venus-Mercury antardashas.

    Mercury dasha gives results of Venus here. But what does it mean? Its mean that in Venus dasha, one will accrue results akin to 8th lord (Mercury) in 7th house. Now see what Parashar maintains about 8th lord in 7th house; "If 8th lord is in 7th house, then native will have relations with multiple spouses. And if such 8th lord is associated with a malefic in 7th house then there will be downfall in business."

    But there is one saving grace, i.e. both the involved planets (Venus & Mercury) are natural benefic and mutual friend. That is why, aforesaid unfavourable effects may not be much evil.

    M. Imran

  4. Thank you very much for the explanations... it was indeed helpful and makes logical sense....

  5. Imran sir you are too good. can this parivarthan be in navamsha? my husband has mercury in saggitarius 6 th house and jupiter in 12 th house of gemini. he also has venus in scorpio in his 5 th house and mars in taurus in 11th house. what really happens? is it good or bad?

  6. Navamsha and nakshatras are also factors in parivarata yoga. In case nakshatras are exchanged by planets A and B, then the houses occupied and owned by A and B would get reflected in the results. The results of course would be good or bad according to the ownerships and occupations.
    The results of nakshatra parivartana are felt during the dashas and antardashas of the A and B. Their mutual dasha-antardasha (A's dasha and B's antardasha or vice versa)giving the most significant results.
    Navamsha parivartan impacts the inner strengths of the 2 planets involved. E.g., Lets say that for karkat(cancer) lagna, where jupiter is 9th and 6th lords and mars is 5th and 10th lord, there is exchange of their navamshas. So in the navamsha chart lets say jupiter is in aries and mars in saggi. At the deep..soul level of mars and jupiter, they will exchange values and features. This is not an overt dharma karma pati parivartan..maha raj yoga. That would have happened if they exchanged houses (especially if mars is occupying pisces and jup is in aries) in the main chart.
    With navamsha exchange, at the inner, out of sight, level, they are exchanging energies and benefiting the native. This happens regardless of which house they are occupying if counted from navamsha lagna. Which is why I didnt mention the navamsah lagna here.
    In a real nativity I know, where the above has happened for a cancer lagna, in the real chart mars is weak in 12th and jupiter, very problematic, in 6th. Normally thats a spoiler for a dharma karmapati yoga, even though they are in mutual (7th) drishti in the main chart. the trishada dosha of jupiter is supposed to be spoiling the entire potential rajyoga.
    However in real life, this person rose to great heights professionally and financially in business (within a few mohths of starting the firm) during jupiter dasha and mars antar. He booked a new luxury apartment too during this time.
    Yes, the evil effects of mars in 12th and jupiter's 6th lordship got manifested too. A lady falsely accused him of harrassment in her private circles, which however came to nothing. Didnt manifest in the public sphere. Mars is a very powerful yogakaraka for cancer and doesnt allow any disaster to a cancer native in its periods / sub periods.
    He got into a fight on the streets with a vehicle driver which flared up majorly and the police got involved. However again nothing severe happened at the end. There was just a monetary loss of a few hundred Rupess because of mars in house of expenditure.

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